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Proven reserves (also known as P90).

2D Seismic

2D (two dimensional) seismic is an acoustic measuring technology which generates a 2D cross-section of the subsurface of the earth and is used primarily when initially reconnoitering for the presence of a structure which could contain oil, gas or water. Acoustic energy is usually provided by the detonation of explosive charges or by large vibrating trucks.


Proven reserves + Probable reserves.

3D Seismic

3D seismic is shot similar to 2D, except the “shotpoints” are much closer together and are laid out on a grid, instead of in a straight line. The geophones that receive the reflected sound waves are also laid out in a grid. This technology is good at showing structural traps, but not ideal for showing stratigraphic traps.


Proven reserves + Provable reserves + Possible reserves.

4-D Seismic

Time-lapse of 3-D and is used once production has begun to see how the production flows are changing in the reservoir.

Acceptable ranges are as follows

• Light: less than 870 kg/m3 (greater than 31.° API)
• Medium: 870 to 920 kg/m3 (31° API to 22° API)
• Heavy: 920 to 1000 kg/m3 (22° API to 10° API)
• Extra-heavy: greater than 1000 kg/m3 (less than 10° API)

API Gravity

The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light petroleum liquid is compared to water. If its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.

Appraisal Well

Exploration well drilled near a well already in production as part of an appraisal campaign, which is carried out to determine the physical extent and likely production potential of a field.